11/18/11

Truckers could continue to log long hours behind the wheel without adequate rest un- der a proposed revision to federal hours of service rules. A silver lining would be more downtime for drivers on a 7-day work sched- ule but not as much of a break for those on 8-day workweeks. Both groups still would be allowed to drive for longer stretches than they could prior to a 2003 rule change.

The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Admin- istration (FMCSA), the agency charged with truck safety, issued the proposal late last year as part of a 2009 settlement with Public Citizen and other groups (see Status Report, June 19, 2010; on the web at iihs.org). A final rule is due by July 26.

The rule would replace hours of service regulations FMCSA issued in 2003, which ex- panded truckers’ allowable driving time and increased required off-duty time (see Status Report, June 16, 2003). Public Citizen sued the agency after it denied petitions to reconsider the 2003 rule. A federal appeals court twice told FMCSA to go back and rethink work rules.

In the latest proposal, FMCSA leaves open the possibility of shortening truckers’ driving time from 11 to 10 hours a day follow- ing a period of at least 10 consecutive hours off duty. Before 2004 truckers were limited to 10 hours driving time a day. The agency says it favors a 10-hour limit, reversing its earlier stance that driving 11 consecutive hours poses no more risk than 10.

“Restoring the 10-hour daily driving limit is long overdue,” says Anne McCartt, Insti- tute senior vice president for research. “It will reduce fatigued driving and lower crash risk. Well-controlled studies indicate crash risk rises well before the 11th hour of driving.”

The American Trucking Associations pre- fers the current regulations. In a Jan. 19, 2011, letter to Congress, the group contends the industry is safer now than ever because truck-related crash deaths and injuries have declined even as truck mileage has risen.

“It’s true that deaths in large truck crashes have dropped,” McCartt concurs. “But the decline hasn’t been as sharp as the drop in deaths in passenger vehicle crashes involv- ing other vehicles besides trucks since 1990.”

If the 2003 rule has had a safety benefit, the truck driver death rate per mile traveled should have fallen. When researchers exam- ined driver crash deaths per 100 billion truck miles traveled in 1990-2008, they found the death rate rose in 2003 and also in 2004-06.

“Giving truckers the green light to drive longer didn’t make roads safer,” McCartt says. “The trends in truck driver deaths per truck

miles traveled don’t support the claim that the current rule reduced crashes.”

Truckers typically follow a 7- or 8-day schedule and can start a new workweek af- ter taking 34 hours off duty. This restart in- creases allowable driving hours in any 7- or 8-day period by about 28 percent. FMCSA sug- gests retaining the restart provision. What’s new is that a restart would have to include 2 periods from midnight to 6 a.m., and only 1 restart would be allowed per 7-day period.

Researchers at the Institute developed hypothetical truck driver schedules maxi- mizing allowable driving times. Requiring

the restart to include 2 overnights had little effect on maximum average driving time in a 7-day period for either a 7- or 8-day workweek. For truck drivers oper- ating on 7-day workweeks, the average weekly driving time would be 64 hours, whether using a daily driving limit of 10 or 11 hours. This is more than the 60 hours of driving in a 7-day period allowed by the pre-2003 rule but substantially less than the current maximum average weekly driving time of 72 hours.

The scenario is different for 8-day driv- ers. For this group, the maximum average

driving hours per 7-day period would be 70 hours under both 10- and 11-hour limits, compared with 61 hours under the pre- 2003 rule and 74 hours currently.

“Truck drivers with 8-day workweeks should be allowed only 1 restart in an 8-day period,” McCartt says. “This is es- pecially important since most long-dis- tance drivers report following an 8-day schedule.” She adds, “It’s not clear that requiring the restart to include 2 over- night periods will achieve measurable safety benefits. The data don’t support this change.”

11/3/11

The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) announced that the new hours of service rule that was due to be published today has been pushed back by at least a month.

With new studies being inserted into the document back in May, and the current version still needing to be vetted by the White House of Management and Budget, nobody is particularly surprised the FMCSA missed today's deadline.

"FMCSA will continue to work toward publishing a final rule as quickly as possible," the agency said in a statement. "The parties to the settlement agreement will file their next status report with the Court on November 28, 2011."

While the details of the rule are unknown at this time, the outcome will more than likely shake up the trucking industry, raising costs and lengthening delivery times, hopefully with a resulting decrease in traffic accidents involving heavy trucks.

If the FMCSA decides to keep the proposed changes, the American Trucking Association (ATA) plans on filing a lawsuit in Federal Court to stay the implementation.

While this has been happening, Congress has been trying to block any changes to the rule, asking Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood to keep the current rule so as not to overload the trucking industry with unnecessary regulations and expenses in the bad economy.

Refer to the following tables to find a logging example based on a particular topic:

Topic | To find a logging example(s) that includes: | Refer to example(s): |
---|---|---|

| 10 hours off duty using combination of consecutive off-duty and sleeper-berth time | 2, 6, 7 |

failing to obtain 10 hours off duty | 3, 4, 5, 18 | |

| 11-hour rule violations | 6, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 21 |

more than 11 hours driving per day | 17, 19, 21 | |

on-duty time after 11-hour limit | 1, 6, 7, 20 | |

returning to compliance after violation | 7, 20, 21 | |

| 14-hour rule violations | 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19 |

effect of multiple short breaks | 9, 16, 18, 19 | |

on-duty time after 14-hour limit | 1, 5, 6, 7, 20 | |

returning to compliance after violation | 7, 18, 19, 20, 21 | |

effect of 8-hour sleeper-berth period | 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 21 | |

| sleeper-berth provision: proper use | 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 19 |

sleeper-berth provision: improper use | 11, 13, 15, 20 | |

sleeper-berth periods of less than 8 hours | 7 | |

single sleeper-berth period of 8 or more hours | 8 | |

multiple 8-hour sleeper-berth periods | 21 | |

multiple short breaks | 16, 20 | |

failing to obtain at least 8 consecutive hours in sleeper berth | 5, 7, 13, 20 | |

| explanation of 60/70-hour rule | Page 27 |

Topic | To find a logging example(s) that includes: | Refer to example(s): |
---|---|---|

| 8 hours off duty using combination of consecutive off-duty and sleeper-berth time | 22 |

off-duty periods of less than 8 hours | 23 | |

| 10-hour rule violations | 25 |

more than 10 hours driving per day | 22 | |

| 15-hour rule violations | 24 |

effect of multiple short breaks | 24, 25 | |

on-duty time after 15-hour limit | 23, 24 | |

| explanation of 60/70-hour rule | Page 27 |

Listed below are 25 examples of the Federal hours-of-service rules in action. Each example includes:

- One or two completed grids from a driver's Record of Duty Status (log) (where there are two consecutive logs, the labels Day 1 and Day 2 are used to tell the two days apart);
- A brief description of any violations that may exist;
- An in-depth explanation of the hours-of-service rules as they apply to the sample log(s); and
- For some of the examples, a discussion of what the driver could have done differently to avoid the violation(s).

Each blue horizontal line drawn within each log grid is labeled with the number of consecutive hours the driver spent in that duty status:

A red flag, labeled with a particular hours-of-service rule, is used to indicate the point at which the driver went into violation of that rule. The violation continues until the driver stops driving a commercial motor vehicle (CMV):

Finally, an arrow labeled CP is used to indicate various Calculation Points, such as CP#1, CP#2, etc. A calculation point is the time of day at which a driver of a property-carrying CMV would *begin* to count his or her driving and/or on-duty time so as to calculate compliance with the driving and/or on-duty limits. A calculation point would normally appear after a 10-hour break or equivalent:

When reviewing the following examples, you can assume that the driver had at least **10 consecutive hours off duty** before the start of each Day 1 or standalone log.

The examples are divided into two sets: some for drivers of property-carrying vehicles and some for drivers of passenger-carrying vehicles.

For more information on the hours-of-service rules or how to complete a log, refer to the *Interstate Truck Drivers Guide to Hours of Service* or the *Interstate Motorcoach Drivers Guide to Hours of Service*.

NOTE: The following log examples focus on the 11- and 14-hour rules for drivers of property-carrying CMVs and the 10- and 15-hour rules for drivers of passenger-carrying CMVs. They do not address any exceptions or special circumstances that may affect how those rules are applied. Except for one, the examples also do not address violations of the 60- or 70-hour limits, which require drivers to stop driving a CMV upon accumulating 60 or 70 on-duty hours over a period of 7 or 8 consecutive days, respectively. You must take these rules into consideration when reviewing actual logs.

**Violations:** There are no violations.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 11 hours beginning at 4:00 a.m. (CP#1). The driver drove only 6 hours, within the limit.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available beginning at 4:00 a.m. (CP#1). The driver stopped driving a commercial motor vehicle (CMV) upon reaching the 14-hour limit at 6:00 p.m., so there are no violations.

NOTE: You may continue to work and/or drive a non-commercial motor vehicle after reaching the 14-hour limit, as long as you do not drive a CMV. After 6:00 p.m., this driver would need 10 consecutive hours off duty before again driving a CMV.

**Violations:** There are no violations.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 11 hours beginning at midnight (CP#1). The driver drove for 5 hours before obtaining 10 consecutive hours off duty (using a combination of *consecutive* off-duty and sleeper-berth time). This 10-hour break moves the calculation point to 3:00 p.m. (CP#2), at which point the driver had another 11 hours available. Because the driver then drove for only 9 hours, there are no violations.

NOTE: A driver may accumulate 10 consecutive hours of rest using any combination of sleeper-berth and off-duty time, as long as all the time is consecutive.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available beginning at midnight (CP#1). The driver accumulated just 5 on-duty hours before going off duty for another 10 consecutive hours. The calculation point then moves to 3:00 p.m. (CP#2), and after that point the driver accumulated 9 hours on duty, within the limits.

NOTE: A driver may accumulate 10 consecutive hours of rest using any combination of sleeper-berth and off-duty time, as long as all the time is consecutive.

** **

**Violations:** There is a 14-hour rule violation from 9:00 p.m. 10:00 p.m.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 11 hours beginning at 2:00 a.m. (CP#1). The driver drove for just 1 hour.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available beginning at 2:00 a.m. (CP#1). Because the 14-hour calculation includes all off-duty time of less than 10 consecutive hours, all of this drivers time between 2:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m. is included in the calculation. The driver reached the 14-hour limit at 4:00 p.m. and violated the 14-hour rule at 9:00 p.m. by driving a CMV past the 14-hour duty limit.

NOTE: Even though this driver had 10 hours off duty during the day and only drove for 1 hour, that hour of driving was done in violation of the 14-hour rule. The driver did not obtain another 10 consecutive hours off duty, so the calculation point does not change and the 9-hour break must be included in the calculation of the 14-hour limit. After 10:00 p.m., the driver must be off duty for at least 10 consecutive hours, or in a sleeper berth for at least 8 consecutive hours, before driving again.

**To remain in compliance:** The driver should not have driven after 4:00 p.m., the 14-hour limit. If he or she had gone into a sleeper berth for the 9-hour break, that break would have been excluded from the 14-hour calculation and the driver would have remained in compliance.

**Violations:** There is a 14-hour rule violation from 5:00 p.m. 10:00 p.m.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at 2:00 a.m. (CP#1). The driver completed 11 hours of driving by 10:00 p.m. and went off duty, so there were no violations of the 11-hour rule.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available at 2:00 a.m. (CP#1). The driver reached the 14-hour limit at 4:00 p.m. and violated the rules by **driving** an additional 5 hours without first obtaining either:

- 10 consecutive hours off duty; or
- 8
*consecutive*hours in a sleeper berth.

**To remain in compliance:** The driver should have either:

- Obtained one additional hour off duty or in the sleeper berth in the middle of the day (for a total of 10 consecutive hours off duty), or
- Remained in the sleeper berth for 8 consecutive hours, rather than only 7.

Had the driver remained in the sleeper for 8 consecutive hours, that 8-hour sleeper period would have been excluded from the 14-hour calculation and the driver would have remained in compliance.

**Violations:** There is a 14-hour rule violation from 5:00 a.m. 8:00 a.m. on Day 2.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 11 hours at 5:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). Before obtaining another 10-consecutive-hour break (beginning at 9:00 a.m. on Day 2), he or she drove for only 7 hours, well within the limit.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available at 5:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1).

The 14-hour calculation includes:

- All off-duty time of less than 10 consecutive hours;
- All sleeper-berth time of less than 8 hours; and
- All on-duty and driving time.

Therefore, the driver reached the 14-hour limit at 7:00 p.m. on Day 1, and the violation began when the driver drove a CMV at 5:00 a.m. on Day 2.

NOTE: Although this driver had 15 hours off duty between 9:00 a.m. on Day 1 and 1:00 a.m. on Day 2, that off-duty time was interrupted by a period of 30 minutes on duty (3:00 p.m. on Day 1). Therefore, both the 6-hour sleeper-berth period and the 9-hour off-duty period are included in the 14-hour calculation (the calculation point does not change from CP#1). In addition, note that the driver can legally work after reaching the 14-hour limit, but cannot drive a commercial motor vehicle.

**To remain in compliance:** The driver should not have gone on duty from 3:00 p.m. 3:30 p.m. on Day 1, or should have remained off duty from 1:00 a.m. 1:30 a.m. on Day 2, in order to get 10 consecutive hours of off-duty time.

**Violations:** There is an 11-hour rule violation on Day 2 from 11:00 p.m. until midnight.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty using a combination of off-duty and sleeper-berth time, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 11 hours beginning at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). By 11:00 p.m., the driver had no more driving hours available, but continued to work for 3 hours. On Day 2, the driver got another 10 consecutive hours off duty, moving the calculation point to noon on Day 2 (CP#2). At CP#2, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available. The driver violated the 11-hour rule by driving one hour beyond the 11-hour limit at 11:00 p.m.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The driver reached the 14-hour limit at midnight (note that the 2-hour sleeper-berth period is included in the 14-hour calculation). Though the driver was not eligible to drive a CMV after midnight, he or she was able to continue working without violation. Then, after getting 10 consecutive hours off-duty on Day 2, the 14-hour calculation point moved to noon on Day 2 (CP#2), at which point the driver had 14 hours available again.

NOTE: The 8-hour sleeper-berth period that begins at 2:00 a.m. on Day 1 is part of a longer break of at least 10 consecutive hours, so it does not enable the driver to use the sleeper-berth provision.

**Violations:** On Day 2, there is an 11-hour rule violation from 11:00 p.m. midnight and a 14-hour rule violation from 1:00 a.m. 2:00 a.m.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty using a combination of off-duty and sleeper-berth time, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 11 hours at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). By 2:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver had driven 9 hours. By obtaining 10 consecutive hours off duty on Day 2, the 11-hour calculation point moved to noon on Day 2 (CP#2), at which point the driver had 11 hours of driving time available again. The driver violated the 11-hour rule by driving beyond the 11-hour limit at 11:00 p.m.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The driver reached the 14-hour limit at midnight (the 5-hour sleeper-berth period is included in the 14-hour calculation because it was less than 8 hours). Though the driver was not eligible to drive a CMV after midnight, he or she was able to continue working (on-duty (not driving)) without violation, which was done for 1 hour. The driver violated the 14-hour rule by driving a CMV at 1:00 a.m. Then, after 10 consecutive hours off duty, the 14-hour calculation point moved to noon on Day 2 (CP#2), at which point the driver had 14 hours available to work again.

NOTE: The 8-hour sleeper-berth period that begins at 2:00 a.m. on Day 1 is part of a longer break of at least 10 consecutive hours, so it does not affect use of the sleeper-berth provision.

**Violations:** There is an 11-hour rule violation from 5:00 a.m. 6:00 a.m. on Day 2.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 hours off, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at 10:00 a.m. (CP#1) on Day 1. At the end of the day, the driver had 2 hours remaining and, without a valid 10-hour break, the driver violated the 11-hour limit by driving an additional 1 hour, at 5 a.m. on Day 2.

NOTE: The driver had 8 consecutive hours in the sleeper berth, but that break does not give the driver any extra driving time (that is, it does not change the calculation point). In addition, the driver cannot use the sleeper-berth provision because he or she did not obtain the equivalent of 10 hours of rest by getting a combination of at least 8 (but less than 10) consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 (but less than 10) consecutive hours.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** Calculation of the 14-hour limit begins at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The driver used 9 of 14 hours on Day 1. Because the driver then got at least 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth, **that rest break is not included in the 14-hour calculation.** The 14-hour calculation continues into Day 2, and at 6:00 a.m. the driver has accumulated 12 hours and has not driven a CMV past the 14-hour duty limit.

NOTE: The driver had 8 consecutive hours in the sleeper berth, but that does not change the 14-hour calculation point because the driver did not obtain a second break of at least 2 (but less than 10) consecutive hours.

**Violations:** There is a 14-hour rule violation from 10:00 p.m. 11:00 p.m.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at midnight (CP#1). The driver completed 9 hours of driving by 11:00 p.m. and went off duty, so there are no violations of the 11-hour rule.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available at midnight (CP#1). The driver used 10 of those hours by 10:00 a.m. before entering the sleeper berth for 8 consecutive hours.

The 8-hour sleeper-berth period is excluded from the 14-hour calculation, but the 1-hour off-duty period connected to that sleeper-berth period is not. So the 14-hour limit was reached at 10:00 p.m., 4 hours after the end of the sleeper-berth period, and the driver violated the rule by continuing to drive for another hour.

NOTE: If the off-duty period from 6:00 p.m. 7:00 p.m. had been spent in a sleeper berth, it would have been excluded from the 14-hour calculation.

**To remain in compliance:** The driver should have either:

- Stopped driving at 10:00 p.m., or
- Remained in the sleeper berth from 6:00 p.m. 7:00 p.m.

** **

**Violations:** There are no violations.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 11 hours beginning at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1), but only drove 9 hours before entering the sleeper berth. With only 8 hours in the sleeper berth, the calculation point does not change, so the driver had 2 hours remaining to drive at 3:00 a.m. on Day 2. After reaching the 11-hour limit at 5:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver went off duty for at least 2 consecutive hours, making him or her eligible for the sleeper-berth provision in 395.1(g)(1) the driver accumulated at least 10 hours of rest using a combination of at least 8 consecutive hours in the sleeper berth and another off-duty break of at least 2 consecutive hours. This moves the calculation point to the end of the first of the two periods of rest, or 3:00 a.m. (CP#2). With 2 hours spent driving after 3:00 a.m., the driver had 9 remaining hours by 7:00 a.m. and used only another 8 hours.

**NOTE:** An 8-hour sleeper-berth period, by itself, does not provide additional driving time, but it is always excluded from the 14-hour calculation (see below).

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). By 7:00 p.m. on Day 1, the driver had 5 hours remaining (but only 2 hours of driving available). At 3:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver still had 5 hours remaining, because any sleeper-berth period of at least 8 but less than 10 consecutive hours is excluded from the 14-hour calculation. By 7:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver had taken 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth plus another 2 consecutive hours off duty, making him or her eligible to use the sleeper-berth provision. This moves the 14-hour calculation point to 3:00 a.m. (CP#2). Therefore, at 7:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver had 10 hours of time remaining (14 - 2 - 2 = 10) and used 9 hours before the end of Day 2.

**Violations:** There is an 11-hour rule violation from 6:30 a.m. 1:00 p.m., and a 14-hour rule violation from 8:00 a.m. - 1:00 p.m., both on Day 2.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at 10:00 a.m. (CP#1). The driver did not have another 10-hour break (or the equivalent) until 1:00 p.m. on Day 2, so the calculation point never changes. The driver accumulated 6 total hours of driving on Day 1 and reached the 11-hour limit at 6:30 a.m. on Day 2.

**NOTE: **The sleeper-berth periods in this example do not establish a second calculation point because the driver did not obtain a combination of at least 8 (but less than 10) consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 (but less than 10) consecutive hours. The second sleeper-berth period was only 1 hours in length.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** Calculation of the 14-hour limit begins at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). At midnight on Day 1, the driver still had 8 hours remaining because any sleeper-berth period of at least 8 but less than 10 consecutive hours is excluded from the 14-hour calculation. The driver reached the 14-hour limit at 8:00 a.m. on Day 2, where the violation began.

**NOTE: **The sleeper-berth periods in this example do not establish a second calculation point because the driver did not obtain a combination of at least 8 (but less than 10) consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 (but less than 10) consecutive hours. The second sleeper-berth period was only 1 hours in length

**To remain in compliance:** The driver should have stayed in the sleeper berth for 2 hours minimum, from 4:00 a.m. 6:00 a.m., on Day 2. This would have moved the calculation point to 11:00 p.m. on Day 1 the end of the first of the two qualifying breaks used to obtain the equivalent of 10 hours off and the driver would have remained in compliance with the 14-hour rule and could have continued driving until 11:30 a.m., the 11-hour limit.

**Violations:** There is a 14-hour rule violation on Day 2 from 5:00 - 9:00 p.m.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the initial calculation point for this driver's 11-hour driving limit is 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The driver drove 9 hours that day before taking 8 hours in the sleeper berth, leaving 2 hours of driving time available at 3:00 a.m. on Day 2 (the 8-hour sleeper-berth period does not result in extra driving time). The driver used those 2 hours and reached the 11-hour limit at 5:00 a.m. when he or she had to stop driving. Then the driver went off duty for at least 2 consecutive hours (8 hours off-duty total) to take advantage of the sleeper-berth provision he or she accumulated at least 10 hours of rest using a combination of at least 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 consecutive hours. This moves the 11-hour calculation point to the end of the first of the two qualifying breaks, or 3:00 a.m. on Day 2 (CP#2). Between CP#2 and 1:00 p.m. on Day 2, the driver had 2 hours of driving, so at 1:00 p.m. there were 9 hours of driving remaining and the driver stayed within that limit.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** Calculation of the 14-hour limit starts at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1), but does not include the 8-hour sleeper-berth period (7:00 p.m. on Day 1 to 3:00 a.m. on Day 2) because any sleeper period of at least 8 but less than 10 consecutive hours is excluded from the 14-hour calculation. So by 5:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver used 11 hours driving and had 3 hours remaining out of the 14 hours allowed. But at 5:00 a.m., the driver went off duty for at least 2 hours, making him or her eligible for the sleeper-berth provision (see above). This moves the calculation point for the 14-hour limit to the end of the first of the two rest periods used to obtain 10 hours off duty, or 3:00 a.m. on Day 2 (CP#2). Fourteen consecutive hours after 3:00 a.m. is 5:00 p.m., when this driver should have stopped driving but did not.

**NOTE: **Any period of off-duty time less than 10 hours (such as this drivers 8-hour off-duty break on Day 2) is included in the 14-hour calculation. Note also that the drivers 8-hour sleeper-berth period allowed him or her to drive during the 18th and 19th hour after first coming on duty, but it did not by itself give the driver additional driving time beyond 11 hours.

**To remain in compliance:** The driver should have stopped driving at 5:00 p.m. on Day 2. The driver would have remained in compliance if he or she had gone off duty for 10 hours on Day 2 instead of just 8, or if he or she had spent those 8 hours in a sleeper berth.

**Violations:** There is an 11-hour rule violation from 11:00 a.m. 1:00 p.m., and a 14-hour rule violation from 7:00 a.m. - 1:00 p.m., both on Day 2.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The driver did not have another 10-hour break (or the equivalent) until 1:00 p.m. on Day 2, so the calculation point never changes. The driver accumulated 7 total hours of driving on Day 1 and reached the 11-hour limit at 11:00 a.m. on Day 2. The violation began when the driver continued driving after that limit.

**NOTE: **The sleeper-berth periods do not affect the calculation point because the driver did not obtain a combination of at least 8 (but less than 10) consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 (but less than 10) consecutive hours.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** Calculation of the 14-hour limit starts at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The 14-hour limit was reached at midnight, and the driver violated the 14-hour rule by driving a CMV starting at 7:00 a.m. on Day 2.

**NOTE: **The sleeper-berth periods in this example do not establish a second calculation point because the driver did not obtain a combination of at least 8 (but less than 10) consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 (but less than 10) consecutive hours.

**To remain in compliance:** The driver should have stayed in the sleeper berth for one additional hour during one of the two sleeper-berth breaks. This would have given the driver the equivalent of 10 hours off duty, making him or her eligible for the sleeper-berth provision. This would have moved the calculation point to the end of the first of the two breaks (10:00 p.m. on Day 1) and the driver would have remained in compliance on Day 2, in this example.

**Violations:** On Day 2, there is an 11-hour rule violation from 4:00 p.m. 9:00 p.m. and a 14-hour rule violation from 7:00 p.m. 9:00 p.m.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). After driving 8 hours (3+2+3), the driver took 8 consecutive hours in the sleeper berth, which, combined with the earlier 2 consecutive hours in the sleeper, made the driver eligible for the sleeper-berth provision. This moves the 11-hour calculation point to the end of the first of the two qualifying breaks, or 9:00 p.m. on Day 1 (CP#2). Between CP#2 and 8:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver had 3 hours of driving, so at 8:00 a.m. there were 8 hours remaining, but he or she continued to drive, for an additional 5 hours, after reaching the 11-hour limit at 4:00 p.m.

**NOTE: **When using the sleeper-berth provision, the 2-hour break can fall before or after the 8-hour sleeper-berth break.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The driver reached the 14-hour limit at midnight (the 2-hour sleeper-berth period is included in the 14-hour calculation because it is less than 8 hours). The driver then entered the sleeper berth for 8 consecutive hours and took advantage of the sleeper-berth provision (see above). This moves the 14-hour calculation point to 9:00 p.m. on Day 1 (CP#2), the end of the first of the two qualifying breaks. Counting forward from there (and excluding the 8-hour sleeper period), the driver had 11 hours remaining as of 8:00 a.m. on Day 2. Those 11 hours were used up by 7:00 p.m. and the driver drove for 2 hours past the 14-hour on-duty limit.

**To remain in compliance:** The driver should have stopped driving at 4:00 p.m. on Day 2. If he or she had gone off duty or in the sleeper berth for at least 2 consecutive hours at that time, the calculation point would have moved to 8:00 a.m. on Day 2 and the driver would have remained in compliance.

**Violations:** There is an 11-hour rule violation from 11:30 p.m. on Day 1 until 1:00 a.m. on Day 2, and from 1:30 - 2:00 p.m. on Day 2. There is a 14-hour rule violation on Day 2 from midnight 1:00 a.m.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The driver completed 11 hours of driving by 11:30 p.m. and continued to drive, in violation (the 2-hour break does not give the driver more driving time).

The driver then had 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth, which, combined with the earlier 2 consecutive hours in the sleeper, made the driver eligible for the sleeper-berth provision the driver accumulated at least 10 hours of rest using a combination of at least 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 consecutive hours. This moves the 11-hour calculation point to the end of the first of the two qualifying breaks, or 6:00 p.m. on Day 1 (CP#2). Between CP#2 and 9:00 a.m., the driver had 7 hours of driving, so at 9:00 a.m. on Day 2 there were 4 hours remaining. The driver violated the rule when he or she continued driving after reaching that limit.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The driver reached the 14-hour limit at midnight and violated the rules by continuing to drive for 1 hour at midnight on Day 2.

The driver then entered the sleeper berth for 8 consecutive hours and took advantage of the sleeper-berth provision (see above). This moves the 14-hour calculation point to 6:00 p.m. on Day 1 (CP#2), the end of the first of the two qualifying breaks. Counting forward from there, the driver had 7 hours remaining as of 9:00 a.m. on Day 2. The driver remained in compliance for the remainder of Day 2.

**NOTE: **Any 8-hour (but less than 10-hour) sleeper-berth period is always excluded from the 14-hour calculation. Any sleeper-berth period of less than 8 hours (like this drivers 2-hour break) must be included in the 14-hour calculation.

**To remain in compliance:** The driver should have taken 10 consecutive hours off duty beginning at 11:30 p.m. on Day 1.

**Violations:** There is an 11-hour rule violation from 12:30 p.m. 1:00 p.m., and a 14-hour rule violation from noon - 1:00 p.m., both on Day 2.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 hours off, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at 10:00 a.m. (CP#1). After 7 hours of driving (3+2+2), the driver entered the sleeper berth for 2 consecutive hours, making him or her eligible for the sleeper-berth provision the driver accumulated at least 10 hours of rest using a combination of at least 8 (but less than 10) consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 (but less than 10) consecutive hours. This moves the calculation point to the end of the first of the two qualifying periods of rest, or 10:00 p.m. on Day 1 (CP#2). The next 11-hour calculation starts there, and the driver reached the 11-hour driving limit at 12:30 p.m. on Day 2.

**NOTE: **The 1 -hour sleeper-berth period that starts at 12:30 a.m. on Day 1 does not affect the calculation point because it is not long enough (i.e., at least 2 hours) to pair with the prior 9-hour sleeper-berth break.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** Calculation of the 14-hour limit begins at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). At midnight on Day 1, the driver still had 9 hours remaining because any sleeper-berth period of at least 8 but less than 10 consecutive hours is excluded from the 14-hour calculation. By 4:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver had 5 hours remaining (14-3-2 -1 -2 = 5). The driver then took a break of at least 2 consecutive hours, making him or her eligible for the sleeper-berth provision. This moves the calculation point to the end of the first of the two qualifying periods of rest, or 10:00 p.m. on Day 1 (CP#2). The next 14-hour calculation starts there, and the driver reached the end of the 14-hour duty period at noon on Day 2 and drove for 1 hour over the 14-hour limit.

**NOTE: **The 1 -hour sleeper-berth period that starts at 12:30 a.m. on Day 1 does not affect the calculation point because it is not long enough (i.e., at least 2 hours) to pair with the prior 9-hour sleeper-berth break.

**Violations:** There are no violations.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at 2:00 a.m. (CP#1) on Day 1. The driver used those 11 hours by 3:00 p.m. when he or she entered the sleeper berth for 8 consecutive hours. Because the driver accumulated at least 10 hours of rest using a combination of at least 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 consecutive hours, he or she was eligible for the sleeper-berth provision. This moves the calculation point to the end of the first of the two periods of rest, or 9:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#2). Starting the calculation from there, the driver accumulated another 11 hours of driving by 4:00 a.m. on Day 2.

By 6:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver accumulated another pair of qualifying breaks totaling at least 10 hours. This moves the calculation point again, to the end of the first of the two breaks, or 11:00 p.m. on Day 1 (CP#3). From there, the driver accumulated another 11 hours of driving by noon on Day 2. This pattern continued, with no 11-hour violations.

**NOTE: **When using the sleeper-berth provision, the order of the qualifying breaks does not matter the break of at least 2 hours can fall before or after the sleeper-berth period of at least 8 hours.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** Calculation of the 14-hour limit begins at 2:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The driver accumulates 13 hours by 3:00 p.m. before entering the sleeper berth. Because the driver then met the requirements for the sleeper-berth provision (see above), the calculation point moves to the end of the first qualifying break, or 9:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#2). So at 11:00 p.m. on Day 1, the driver had accumulated 6 hours (any sleeper-berth period of at least 8 but less than 10 consecutive hours is excluded from the 14-hour calculation).

By 6:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver accumulated another pair of qualifying breaks totaling at least 10 hours and has not exceeded the 14-hour duty limit. This moves the calculation point again, to the end of the first of the two breaks, or 11:00 p.m. on Day 1 (CP#3). From there, the driver accumulated 13 of 14 hours by noon on Day 2 (any sleeper-berth period of less than 8 hours is included in the 14-hour calculation). This pattern continued, with no violations.

**Violations:** There is a 14-hour rule violation on Day 2 from 8:00 a.m. 10:00 a.m.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The driver completed 11 hours of driving by 10:00 a.m. on Day 2 and was not eligible for more driving until taking time off duty.

Because the driver had 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and then 2 consecutive hours off duty, he or she was eligible for the sleeper-berth provision the driver accumulated at least 10 hours of rest using a combination of at least 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 consecutive hours. This moves the 11-hour calculation point to the end of the first of the two qualifying breaks, or 8:00 a.m. on Day 2 (CP#2). Counting forward from there, the driver had 2 hours of driving plus an additional 9 hours of driving for a total of 11, with no violations.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The driver reached the 14-hour limit at midnight (note that all off-duty periods of less than 10 hours are included in the calculation).

The driver then entered the sleeper berth for 8 consecutive hours, which is excluded from the 14-hour calculation. But because the driver did not have an earlier 2-hour break and did not obtain 10 consecutive hours off duty, the calculation point does not move (that is, the 14-hour calculation continues from Day 1 into Day 2). At 8:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver was still at the 14-hour limit and had no time remaining. He or she violated the rule by driving for 2 more hours.

The driver then took 2 consecutive hours off duty and was able to take advantage of the sleeper-berth provision (see above). The calculation point moves to 8:00 a.m. on Day 2 (the end of the first period used in the split), and counting forward from there the driver accumulated just 13 hours by 9:00 p.m., within the limits.

**To remain in compliance:** To be able to drive on Day 2, the driver had no choice but to take 10 consecutive hours off duty and/or in a sleeper berth after midnight on Day 1, instead of just 8. Alternatively, the driver could have gone off duty for 2 consecutive hours on Day 1, instead of two 1-hour breaks.

**Violations:** There is a 14-hour rule violation from 2:00 p.m. 3:00 p.m.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 11 hours beginning at midnight (CP#1). The driver reached the 11-hour limit at 3:00 p.m., at which point he or she entered the sleeper berth for 8 consecutive hours.

The 8-hour sleeper-berth period, combined with the earlier 2-hour off-duty period (in this case, a combination of sleeper-berth and off-duty time beginning at 9:00 a.m.), made the driver eligible for the sleeper-berth provision the driver accumulated at least 10 hours of rest using a combination of at least 8 (but less than 10) consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 (but less than 10) consecutive hours either off duty and/or in a sleeper berth. This moves the 11-hour calculation point to the end of the first of the two qualifying breaks, or 11:00 a.m. (CP#2). After CP#2, the driver accumulated 4 hours of driving time, leaving 7 hours to be used after 11:00 p.m.

**NOTE: **Though the 8-hour sleeper-berth period could be paired with either of the 2-hour breaks (under the sleeper-berth provision), pairing it with the most recent (second) break is most advantageous for the driver.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:**The driver had 14 hours available beginning at midnight (CP#1). The 14-hour limit was reached at 2:00 p.m., but the driver continued to drive, resulting in a 1-hour driving violation.

The driver then went into the sleeper berth for 8 consecutive hours, which enabled him or her to take advantage of the sleeper-berth provision (see above). This moves the 14-hour calculation point to 11:00 a.m. (CP#2). Counting forward from there (and excluding the 8-hour sleeper-berth period), the driver had 10 hours remaining at 11:00 p.m. and had no further violations.

**NOTE:** Though the driver had a violation, he or she is not required to take 10 consecutive hours off duty in order to return to compliance. Because the driver already had a 2-hour break, the driver was able to take 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth to obtain the equivalent of 10 hours off duty using the sleeper-berth provision.

The fact that the driver returned to compliance after 11:00 p.m. does not remove the violation from 2:00 p.m. 3:00 p.m. The driver should have taken the break at 2:00 p.m. to avoid the violation.

Off-duty time, or a combination of consecutive off-duty and sleeper-berth time, of less than 10 hours is not excluded from (i.e., does not extend) the 14-hour calculation.

**Violations:** There are 11- and 14-hour rule violations from 8:00 a.m. 1:00 p.m. on Day 2.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 11 hours beginning at 2:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The driver reached the 11-hour driving limit at 3:00 p.m. on Day 1 and did not obtain another 10-hour break before driving again at 8:00 a.m. on Day 2, thus violating the 11-hour limit.

The driver then obtained 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth, which, combined with the earlier 7-hour sleeper-berth period, made the driver eligible for the sleeper-berth provision the driver accumulated at least 10 hours of rest using a combination of at least 8 (but less than 10) consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 (but less than 10) consecutive hours. This moves the 11-hour calculation point to the end of the first of the two qualifying breaks, or 5:00 a.m. on Day 2 (CP#2). Between CP#2 and 9:00 p.m., the driver had 5 hours of driving, so at 9:00 p.m. on Day 2 there were 6 hours remaining, and there were no further 11-hour rule violations.

**NOTE: **The fact that the driver returned to compliance after 9:00 p.m. on Day 2 does not remove the violation from 8:00 a.m. 1:00 p.m. Note also that even though the driver had a violation, he or she is not required to take 10 consecutive hours off duty in order to return to compliance. In this case, 8 hours in the sleeper berth was enough.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:**After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available beginning at 2:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The 14-hour limit was reached at 4:00 p.m. on Day 1. Without a valid 10-hour break, the hours continued to accumulate into Day 2, and the driver violated the 14-hour rule by driving at 8:00 a.m.

The driver then went into the sleeper berth for 8 consecutive hours, which enabled him or her to take advantage of the sleeper-berth provision (see above). This moves the 14-hour calculation point to 5:00 a.m. on Day 2 (CP#2), the end of the first of the two qualifying breaks. Counting forward from there, the 8 hours from 5:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. are included in the calculation, but the 8-hour sleeper-berth period is excluded. Therefore, at 9:00 p.m. on Day 2, the driver had 6 hours remaining and had no further violations of the 14-hour rule.

**NOTE: **The fact that the driver returned to compliance after 9:00 p.m. on Day 2 does not remove the violation from 8:00 a.m. 1:00 p.m.

**To remain in compliance:** The driver should have remained in the sleeper berth until 5:30 a.m. on Day 2, thus moving the calculation point to 9:00 p.m. on Day 1. Or, at 9:00 p.m. on Day 1, the driver should have remained in the sleeper berth instead of going on duty for 30 minutes.

**Violations:** There is an 11-hour rule violation from 5:00 a.m. 7:00 a.m. on Day 2.

**Explanation 11-Hour Limit:** After 10 hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at 10:00 a.m. (CP#1) on Day 1. By 2:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver had 3 hours remaining, and exceeded the limit, by 2 hours, starting at 5:00 a.m. Then, because the driver accumulated at least 10 hours of rest using a combination of at least 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 consecutive hours (in this case, 8), he or she was eligible for the sleeper-berth provision. This moves the calculation point to the end of the first of the two periods of rest, or 2:00 a.m. on Day 2 (CP#2). Between CP#2 and 3:00 p.m., the driver had 5 hours of driving, so at 3:00 p.m. on Day 2 there were 6 hours remaining, which the driver used by 9:00 p.m.

Because the driver then took at least 2 consecutive hours off duty, he or she accumulated another 10 hours of rest in two separate, qualifying periods totaling 10 hours. This moves the calculation point again, to CP#3 (3:00 p.m. on Day 2), and at 11:00 p.m. on Day 2 the driver has 5 hours of driving time remaining.

**NOTE:** When using the sleeper-berth provision, the break of "at least 2 hours" can consist of any combination of consecutive off-duty and/or sleeper-berth time.

**Explanation 14-Hour Limit:**Calculation of the 14-hour limit begins at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1 (CP#1). The driver accumulates 8 hours of driving time by 6:00 p.m. before entering the sleeper berth. Because any sleeper-berth period of at least 8 (but less than 10) consecutive hours is excluded from the 14-hour calculation, the driver accumulated just 13 hours by 7:00 a.m. on Day 2. The driver then met the requirements for the sleeper-berth provision (see above), so the calculation point moves to the end of the first qualifying break, or 2:00 a.m. on Day 2 (CP#2). Starting from there, the driver accumulated 11 hours by 9:00 p.m. on Day 2.

The driver again met the requirements for the sleeper-berth provision by getting 2 hours of rest, so the calculation point moves to 3:00 p.m. (CP#3), and the driver remains in compliance.

**NOTE: **By midnight on Day 2, the driver had accumulated 9 out of 14 hours, based on CP#3.

The 60- and 70-hour limits require drivers to stop driving a CMV upon accumulating 60 or 70 on-duty hours (including all on-duty and driving time) over a period of 7 or 8 consecutive days, respectively. Prior to the sample log grid shown below, suppose the driver, using the 70-hour limit, accumulated the following on-duty hours over 8 days:

Day | Hours |
---|---|

1. Sunday | 0 |

2. Monday | 10 |

3. Tuesday | 8.5 |

4. Wednesday | 12.5 |

5. Thursday | 9 |

6. Friday | 10 |

7. Saturday | 12 |

8. Sunday | 5 |

Total | 67 hours |

**Note: **Assume this drivers day runs from midnight to midnight, as shown in the sample log below. Employers can choose their own start times for the day, but that time must be indicated on the log.

Because the driver did not accumulate more than 70 on-duty hours over 8 consecutive days (Sunday Sunday), he or she was in compliance with the 70-hour limit.

**Note: **A driver can *accumulate *more than 60/70 hours without being in violation, as long as no CMV driving is done after reaching the 60/70-hour limit.

To determine how many hours are available for the next day, Monday, the driver has to check the 8-consecutive-day period from Monday to Monday. During that period the driver has accumulated 67 hours so far, and therefore only has 3 hours remaining during which to drive on Monday. Here is the driver's Monday log grid:

The driver reached the 70-hour limit at 1:00 p.m. after completing 3 on-duty hours. At this point, the driver should not have driven for the remainder of the day, but he or she violated the 70-hour rule by getting behind the wheel at 3:00 p.m. for one hour.

At the end of the day on Monday, the new 8-day calculation looks like this:

Day | Hours |
---|---|

- Monday
| 10 |

- Tuesday
| 8.5 |

- Wednesday
| 12.5 |

- Thursday
| 9 |

- Friday
| 10 |

- Saturday
| 12 |

- Sunday
| 5 |

- Monday
| 8 |

Total | 75 hours |

After midnight, the driver enters a new day, Tuesday, and a new 8-consecutive-day period, from Tuesday to Tuesday. The 10 hours worked on the prior Monday (day #1 above) drop out of consideration. During this new 8-day period from Tuesday to Tuesday, the driver has accumulated 65 hours so far, and therefore has 5 hours during which to drive on Tuesday before again hitting the 70-hour limit.

**NOTE:** If the driver operates a property-carrying vehicle and takes **34 or more consecutive hours** off duty and/or in a sleeper berth, he or she would have a full 70 hours available again, and the hours worked in the days before the 34-hour period began would no longer need to be considered. This 34-hour restart provision can be used even if the driver has exceeded the 60- or 70-hour limit before going off duty. **This provision does not apply to drivers of passenger-carrying vehicles.**

**Violations:** There are no violations.

**Explanation 10-Hour Limit:** After 8 consecutive hours off duty, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 10 hours beginning at 2:00 a.m., which the driver did. He or she then took another 8 consecutive hours off duty, giving the driver another 10 hours of driving time available.

**NOTE: **The 8-hour break can be any combination of off-duty and sleeper-berth time, as long as the time is all consecutive and not broken by any on-duty activity.

**Explanation 15-Hour Limit:**After 8 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 15 on-duty hours available at 2:00 a.m. By noon, the driver had used 10 of those hours. The driver then took another 8-hour break, giving him or her another full 15 hours available.

**NOTE: **The 8-hour break can be any combination of off-duty and sleeper-berth time, as long as the time is all consecutive and not broken by any on-duty activity.

**Violations:** There are no violations.

**Explanation 10-Hour Limit:** After 8 consecutive hours off duty, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 10 hours beginning at 8:00 a.m. on Day 1. The driver reached the 10-hour driving limit at 6:00 a.m. on Day 2, when he or she stopped driving. The driver then took another 8 consecutive hours off duty, giving him or her another 10 hours of driving time available.

**NOTE: **Off-duty periods of less than 8 consecutive hours do not result in additional driving time.

**Explanation 15-Hour Limit:**After 8 consecutive hours off duty, the driver, at 8:00 a.m. on Day 1, had 15 on-duty hours available during which to drive a CMV. By including only on-duty and driving time in this calculation, the driver reached the 15-hour limit (2 + 4 + 2 + 2 + 1 + 3 + 1 = 15) at 6:00 a.m. on Day 2, when he or she had to stop driving. At that point, the driver continued working for 2 hours, which is allowed as long as there is no more CMV driving. In order to return to driving, the driver needed at least 8 consecutive hours off duty, which was obtained by 4:00 p.m. on Day 2, at which point the driver again had 15 on-duty hours available (10 of which could be driving).

**NOTE:** Off-duty and sleeper-berth periods, no matter how short, are not included in the 15-hour calculation. In addition, a driver can continue to work beyond the 15-hour limit, as long as there is no more CMV driving.

**Violations:** There is a 15-hour rule violation from 10:00 p.m. midnight.

**Explanation 10-Hour Limit:** After 8 consecutive hours off duty, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 10 hours beginning at 2:00 a.m. The driver reached the 10-hour driving limit at midnight, so there are no 10-hour rule violations on this log.

**Explanation 15-Hour Limit:** After 8 consecutive hours off duty, the driver, at 2:00 a.m., had 15 on-duty hours available during which to drive a CMV. The driver accumulated 15 on-duty hours (including on-duty and driving time) by 9:00 p.m. The 15-hour rule was violated when the driver drove a CMV at 10:00 p.m. without first having another 8 consecutive hours off duty.

**NOTE:** Off-duty and sleeper-berth periods, no matter how short, are not included in the 15-hour calculation.

**Violations:** There is a 10-hour rule violation from 8:00 p.m. 9:00 p.m.

**Explanation 10-Hour Limit:** After 8 consecutive hours off duty, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 10 hours beginning at 4:00 a.m. The driver reached the 10-hour driving limit at 8:00 p.m. and violated the rule by continuing to drive for another hour.

**NOTE:** The 2-hour off-duty period does not provide the driver with additional driving time.

**Explanation 15-Hour Limit:**After 8 consecutive hours off duty, the driver, at 4:00 a.m., had 15 on-duty hours available during which to drive a CMV. The driver accumulated just 14 on-duty hours (including on-duty and driving time) by 9:00 p.m., so there were no violations.

**NOTE: **Off-duty and sleeper-berth periods, no matter how short, are not included in the 15-hour calculation.

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